If, during the negotiations, the parties fail to reach an agreement for reasons beyond their wishes, a minutes are drawn up, with final proposals from the parties on the appropriate measures for establishing these grounds, as well as the date of the resumption of negotiations. Cases in paragraph 1 of this section are considered at the request of one of the parties to a collective agreement or a competent commission agreement or at the initiative of the Crown. The definition of a collective agreement is contained in the Participation Act, which stipulates that a collective agreement is a written agreement between employers` organizations or an employer, on the one hand, and a workers` organization, on the other, which regulates the conditions of employment or the relationship between the employer and the worker. An agreement is considered written if its contents are recorded in approved minutes or if a proposal for agreement and acceptance are recorded in separate documents. Oral agreements or agreements that do not concern the relationship between the employer and the workers are not considered a collective agreement. The right to collective bargaining is recognized by international human rights conventions. Article 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the ability to organize fundamental human rights unions.  Point 2 (a) of the International Labour Organization`s statement on fundamental principles and rights in the workplace defines “freedom of association and effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining” as an essential worker`s right.  The 1948 Convention on Freedom of Association and the Protection of the Right to Organization (C087) and several other conventions protect collective bargaining in particular by creating international labour standards that deter countries from violating workers` right to co-association and collective bargaining.
 The collective agreement may stipulate the following reciprocal obligations of the employer and the worker: a collective agreement is a written contract between an employer and a union representing the workers. The KBA is the result of a broad negotiation process between the parties on issues such as wages, hours and terms of employment. The Act is now enshrined in the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 p.179, which provides that collective agreements are definitively considered non-binding in the United Kingdom. This presumption can be rebutted if the agreement is written and includes an express provision that it should be legally enforceable. Section 13. Content and structure of collective agreements. The content and structure of collective agreements are defined by the parties. In the United States, the National Labor Relations Act (1935) covers most collective agreements in the private sector. The Act makes it illegal for employers to discriminate, spy, harass or terminate workers because of their union membership or to retaliate for organizing campaigns or other “concerted activities,” creating business unions or refusing to engage in collective bargaining with the union that represents their employees. It is also illegal to require any worker to join a union as a condition of employment.  Trade unions are also able to ensure safe working conditions and adequate remuneration for their work.